Chassis & dynamics: transformation, technology and opportunity

Clear understanding of a fast-moving field: evolution, integration, market dynamics, future developments, supplier profiles

Nothing, not even the Toyota unintended acceleration crisis of a few years ago, has tempered the industry’s zeal for brake-by-wire, steer-by-wire and drive-by-wire technology.

X-by-wire is the wave of the future in vehicle dynamics, promising to make cars lighter, safer, easier to build and more fuel efficient.

But what does it mean for your company? What are the hidden opportunities?

“Chassis & dynamics: transformation, technology and opportunity” provides an overall understanding of a fast-moving field.

For more than two decades the take-up of electronically-controlled vehicle dynamics was held back by consumer reservations. But the situation has changed dramatically in the past two years.

OEM strategies — starting with braking systems — are taking shape so quickly that it is difficult to keep track of who is doing what – and where the opportunities lie. The report offers a clear analysis of the state of modern vehicle dynamics and the tactical steps OEMs are taking.

What’s clear is that the mandate for better fuel economy and the competition for emerging markets are stimulating the new interest by OEMs in X-by-wire systems. Not least among them is the new industry race for self-driving vehicles, which proponents say is impossible without X-by-wire.

In an era of platform commonality the management of vehicle dynamics has become a key differentiator for products — a trend that will clearly continue. The passage of the art of vehicle dynamics from the mechanical to the electronic creates enormous opportunities for suppliers.

The report evaluates cost benefit imperatives of vehicle dynamics technologies and consumer adoption, as well as detailing important research findings and exploring case studies in integrated systems.

About the author

Mike MurphyMike Murphy B.Sc., M.Phil.(Hons.I) has had a lifelong interest in things automotive including owning and racing a range of motorcycles and track cars. He began regularly contributing to automotive publications in his native New Zealand during the 1990s and in 2004 he became a news editor for a leading UK auto industry publication. He began researching and writing automotive technology sector reports the following year and has had around 50 technology reports and numerous features published by four UK-based automotive industry publications.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: The evolution of vehicle dynamics

2.1 Rules governing ESC – the founding principle of vehicle dynamics
2.2 Software progression in electronics
2.3 Evaluating cost benefit imperatives of vehicle dynamics technologies and consumer adoption
2.4 Research findings

Chapter 3: Computer modelling and simulation of in vehicle systems

3.1 Monitoring safety
3.2 Uses of modelling to pretest designs in actuators, suspension, steering and tyres
3.2.1 Actuators
3.2.2 Suspension
3.2.3 Electric power steering
3.2.4 Tyres

Chapter 4: Integration of vehicle dynamics systems

4.1 Assistance from sensors
4.2 Case studies in integrated systems

Chapter 5: Design and specification of components – steering, suspension, brakes, traction control and tyres

5.1 Steering
5.1.1 Electro-hydraulic power steering
5.1.2 Electric power steering
5.1.3 Active steering
5.1.4 Steer-by-wire
5.1.5 Rear wheel steering
5.2 Suspension
5.2.1 Suspension geometry – front and rear
5.2.2 Kinematics and elasto-kinematics
5.2.3 Reducing weight
5.2.4 The progression from passive to active suspension
5.2.5 Passive suspension developments
5.2.6 Adaptive suspension systems
5.2.7 Semi-active suspension systems
5.2.8 Active suspension systems – hydraulic, air and electromagnetic
5.3 Brakes
5.3.1 Emergency brake assist
5.3.2 Automatic emergency braking
5.3.3 Brake-by-wire
5.3.4 Electromechanical brakes
5.3.5 Brake systems for hybrids and EVs
5.3.6 Electric parking brake
5.3.7 Lightweight materials
5.4 Stability control
5.5 Traction control
5.5.1 Differentials
5.5.2 All-wheel drive
5.5.3 Electronic traction control
5.5.4 Torque vectoring
5.5.5 Active all-wheel drive and torque vectoring
5.5.6 Electrified all-wheel drive and torque vectoring systems
5.6 Tyres

Chapter 6: Market dynamics and forecasts

6.1 Steering
6.2 Suspension
6.3 Brakes
6.4 Stability control systems
6.5 All-wheel drive
6.6 Tyres

Chapter 7: Roadmap for future developments

Chapter 8: Company Profiles

Advics
American Axle
BorgWarner
Bosch
BWI Group
Chassis Brakes
Continental AG
Delphi
Denso International
Freescale
JTEKT
KYB Corporation
Magna
Magneti Marelli
Mando Corporation
Nexteer
NHK Spring
NSK
Ricardo
Tenneco
Thyssenkrupp
Visteon
ZF Friedrichshafen AG

Table of figures

  • Figure 1: Increasing number of ECUs per vehicle class, 2006–2018
  • Figure 2: The increasing number of vehicle model variants, 1970 to 2030
  • Figure 3: Step response of actuator models compared to actual measurement
  • Figure 4: Model descriptions for modelling elasto-kinematics in a double wishbone suspension
  • Figure 5: Influence of elastic component under longitudinal load
  • Figure 6: Influence of elastic component under lateral load
  • Figure 7: Steering system solutions for a range of model variants
  • Figure 8: Finite element, 3D tyre simulation with thermal gradient
  • Figure 9: Bosch Vehicle Motion Control
  • Figure 10: Bosch networked ESC and steering systems
  • Figure 11: ZF TRW electrically-powered hydraulic steering
  • Figure 12: Different EPS calibration possibilities, steering wheel torque vs assistance
  • Figure 13: Steering feedback maps – Porsche UKR vs conventional EPS
  • Figure 14: Honda EPS system
  • Figure 15: ZF Lenksysteme Active Steering
  • Figure 16: TRW Belt Drive Electrically-Powered Steering
  • Figure 17: Nexteer Pinion Assist Electric Power Steering
  • Figure 18: Bosch Servolectric EPS with servo unit on the steering column
  • Figure 19: Ford Adaptive Steering components
  • Figure 20: ThyssenKrupp Presta experimental steer-by-wire system
  • Figure 21: ZF Active Kinematics Control system
  • Figure 22: Transient lateral load build-up in rear suspension trailing arm, base vs modified
  • Figure 23: Driver ratings and preferences for five roll dynamics test cases
  • Figure 24: Typical front-wheel drive MacPherson strut suspension configuration
  • Figure 25: Double-wishbone front suspension configuration
  • Figure 26: Toyota robotic suspension schematic
  • Figure 27: Comparison of normal, wide and controlled suspension during cornering
  • Figure 28: Ford Fiesta twist beam rear suspension
  • Figure 29: Mercedes-Benz CLA multi-link rear suspension
  • Figure 30: ZF ultra-light suspension strut
  • Figure 31: Sogefi glass fibre-reinforced polymer coil spring
  • Figure 32: Mercedes-Benz pre-scan technology
  • Figure 33: Ford RevoKnuckle
  • Figure 34: HyPerStrut (left) versus MacPherson strut (right) geometry
  • Figure 35: Chevrolet Cruze Z-LinkTorsion Beam rear suspension
  • Figure 36: Ford Control Blade rear suspension
  • Figure 37: ZF Vario Damper internals
  • Figure 38: BWI MagneRide strut and damper
  • Figure 39: Magneti Marelli Synaptic Damping components
  • Figure 40: Tenneco Continuously-controlled Electronic Suspension
  • Figure 41: ZF Sachs CDC dampers
  • Figure 42: Mercedes-Benz Active Body Control in action
  • Figure 43: Bilstein B4 Air Suspension Strut
  • Figure 44: Continental Airmatic Suspension
  • Figure 45: Bose electromagnetic front suspension module
  • Figure 46: Braking distances with and without EBS
  • Figure 47: Continental MK C1 electro-hydraulic brake system
  • Figure 48: ZF TRW Slip Control Boost
  • Figure 49: Siemens VDO Electronic Wedge Brake
  • Figure 50: Continental spindle-actuated electromechanical brake
  • Figure 51: Bosch iBooster
  • Figure 52: Continental drum-brake EPB system
  • Figure 53: ZF TRW EPB and operating switch
  • Figure 54: Brembo carbon-ceramic brake module
  • Figure 55: Continental/Schaeffler Active Roll Stabilization
  • Figure 56: ZF Sachs ARS locking-unlocking device
  • Figure 57: GKN Electronic Locking Differential
  • Figure 58: GKN Electronic Torque Manager
  • Figure 59: GKN Dual Differential for transverse powertrain
  • Figure 60: BorgWarner FXD
  • Figure 61: GKN Electronic Torque Vectoring Module
  • Figure 62: Lexus RC F torque transfer system
  • Figure 63: Steering angle, yaw rate, brake pressures, engine torque and wheel slip under control strategy intervention
  • Figure 64: AWD demand on high-grip roads
  • Figure 65: Fuel economy: Getrag ECO -Twinster versus mechanical AWD
  • Figure 66: BorgWarner Torque-On-Demand Transfer Case
  • Figure 67: GKN ElectroMagnetic Control Device
  • Figure 68: Honda SH-AWD system
  • Figure 69: Magna ProActive AWD coupling
  • Figure 70: Schaeffler transverse, two-speed electric drive axle
  • Figure 71: Schaeffler 48-volt electric drive axle with torque vectoring
  • Figure 72: Michelin Active Wheel
  • Figure 73: Braking distance tests on high- and low-friction surfaces, 2000–2016
  • Figure 74: Rolling resistance, 2000–2014
  • Figure 75: Global automotive steering system market growth, 2013–2018
  • Figure 76: Global electric power steering market value by region (US$bn), 2014–2020
  • Figure 77: Electric power steering system shipments (millions), 2013–2018
  • Figure 78: Automotive suspension systems market value by region, 2013–2018
  • Figure 79: Global brake systems market value growth by vehicle type, 2014–2019
  • Figure 80: Automotive brake friction products market volume growth by region, 2014–2019
  • Figure 81: Global automotive ABS and ESC system market growth, 2014–2019
  • Figure 82: Automotive multi-wheel drive systems market volume by region, 2014–2020
  • Figure 83: Global tyre revenue 2014 by manufacturer
  • Figure 84: Global tyre value by vehicle sector
  • Figure 85: Bosch roadmap towards automated driving
  • Figure 86: Bosch Vehicle Motion Control inputs and outputs roadmap

Table of tables

  • Table 1: Safety incentives – dates and stages of fitment required by legislation
  • Table 2: Comparison of evasive distance for different velocities
  • Table 3: A new brand of steering – Ford’s Steering System Fingerprint
  • Table 4: Mergers and acquisitions driven by successful technologies
Author: Michael Murphy
Publisher: Autelligence
Published: September 2015
Pages: 141
Format: PDF
Currency: $USD | €EUR
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