Turbochargers and superchargers – major trends and the future of forced induction

Technology, business and future of forced induction: market drivers, powertrain strategies, market segmentation and dynamics, forecasts to 2020, current and future forced induction technology, and detailed sector supplier profiles

In a 2016 Autelligence expert survey on the future of powertrain, forced induction was voted in the top 5 most important technologies for achieving powertrain objectives in the next 10 years, clearly showing that much is still expected of this proven technology.

Because of the inherent benefits of forced induction, the technology has moved from being a niche powertrain system to becoming central to powertrain strategy. It’s applied for downsizing gasoline engines (1.0 litre turbocharged gasoline engines are now common in C- and even D-segment cars in Europe), for making diesel engines overcome their inherent problems with power and torque delivery, and even for a new approach to performance engines, to the point where the 2016 Porsche 911 engine range will be practically all forced induction.

Key report coverage

Market drivers in a world of increasingly tougher emissions regulations, both regulation-based such as increasing fuel economy and reducing CO2; increasingly stringent criterion emissions regulation and other regulations, as well as OEM competitiveness parameters like drivability, NVH performance, costs, packaging, systems integratin and speed to market

Forced induction powertrain strategies – downsizing and downspeeding, design compromises, new designs in structure and function, hybridisation, engineering challenges and limitations, gasoline vs diesel, efficiency optimization

Market segmentation and dynamics: continuing industry restructuring, the expanding markets of China and India, increased global industry integration and the continually increasing degree of globalization.

The future of turbocharging and supercharging – the necessity for additional measures to meet emissions targets in light of VW scandal, subsequent increased pace of development, harvesting of waste exhaust energy, new electrical architectures such as 48V with electrically driven superchargers, flexible turbochargers vs compound systems

The key battleground of current and future forced induction technology – turbochargers, compressors, aerodynamics, bearing design, compounding, multi-stage charging, waste heat recovery, new materials, assisted charging

Forecasts of fitment rates, engine displacement and forced induction vehicle market size

The main sector players in detailed company profiles, including company overview, key people, products and customers, revenue analysis, R&D and future plans.

Methodology

  • Our experienced editorial team aims to find and synthesize a broad range of sources into a readable, accessible document that can serve as a foundation for further analysis to meet individual reader’s needs and as a platform for the monitoring of ongoing developments.
  • Regular surveys of extensive database of interested parties and industry executives to keep in touch with the latest thinking from the front-line of practical applications and highlight challenges to established industry thinking as it emerges.
  • A team of researchers monitors major studies and thoughtful analysis of the key issues across the academic and business press and general media.
  • Attendance at major conferences and events to bring insights from industry practitioners ands players and identify critical insights. We partner with the organisers of key events.

Overview 5
Scope of this report 6
History – moving from performance to efficiency 7

Chapter 1: Forced induction – a critical enabling technology for CO2 reduction 8

1.1 Types of charging mechanisms 8
1.2 Engine design to manage forced induction 8
1.3 Implications for powertrain 8
1.4 Benefits of turbocharging 9

Chapter 2: Forced induction – market segmentation 10
2.1 Heavy duty 10
2.2 Light duty 10
2.3 Performance 10
2.4 Small diesels 11

Chapter 3: Powertrain strategy – downsizing and downspeeding 12
3.1 Boosting a downsized engine 12
3.2 Efficiency optimization; turbocharger and supercharger choices and combinations 15

Chapter 4: Market dynamics – industry initiatives drive engine efficiency 23
4.1 Turbocharging forecasts 23

Chapter 5: Technologies – the key competitive battleground 30
5.1 Single stage turbochargers 30
5.2 Compressors 30
5.2.1 Reciprocating compressors 30
5.2.2 Screw compressors 31
5.2.3 Roots type superchargers 32
5.2.4 Roots vs screw 34
5.2.4 Centrifugal compressors 34
5.2.5 Surge line 35
5.2.6 Choke line 35
5.3 Aerodynamic design 35
5.4 Bearing systems 36
5.5 Micro turbocharging 36
5.6 Waste-gated turbochargers 37
5.7 Turbocompounding 38
5.7.1 Electric turbocompounding 40
5.8 Twin-scroll turbochargers 43
5.9 Variable geometry turbochargers 44
5.10 Multi-stage turbocharging 47
5.10.1 Parallel twin turbocharging 48
5.10.2 Sequential twin turbocharging 48
5.10.3 Regulated twin turbocharging 48
5.10.4 Three-stage turbocharging 49
5.11 Twin vortices supercharger 50
5.12 Multi-speed superchargers 50
5.13 Electric superchargers 51
5.14 Charge air coolers (intercoolers) 54

Chapter 6: The future of turbocharging and supercharging 56
6.1 Waste heat recovery: the state of the art 56
6.2 Electronic controls and new materials 59
6.3 Titanium compressor impellers 60
6.4 Assisted turbocharging 61

Chapter 7: Market drivers dominated by tougher emissions regulation 62
7.1 Emissions regulations – improving CO2 emissions 62
7.2 Global overview 63
7.2.1 The European Union 63
7.2.2 The United States 66
7.2.3 Japan 68
7.2.3.1 Actual and targeted CO2 emissions volumes in Japan’s transport sector 70
7.2.3.2 Emissions Standards and Certification 70
7.2.4 China 71
7.2.5 Other countries 71
7.3 Testing regimes – variation makes life difficult and the move to a global standard 71
7.4 Criterion emissions – tough and getting tougher – how to make a difference 74
7.4.1 The United States 74
7.4.2 Japan 75
7.4.3 Europe 76
7.4.4 China 77
7.4.5 Other countries 77
7.5 Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles 78

Company profiles 80
BorgWarner 80
Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems 83
Continental AG 85
Cummins 87
Eaton 89
Honeywell 91
IHI Corporation 94
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 96
Valeo 98

Table of figures
Figure 1: Basic turbocharger design 9
Figure 2: Electric supercharger 15
Figure 3: Typical transient response comparison at 1,500rpm, turbocharger vs supercharger 16
Figure 4: Turbocharger configurations 16
Figure 5: Torque response for various engine and turbocharger configurations 17
Figure 6: Eaton’s Roots-type supercharger 18
Figure 7: The VGT fitted to a Porsche 911 with vanes closed and open 19
Figure 8: Schematic diagram of BorgWarner’s eBooster 19
Figure 9: VanDyne’s SuperTurbo 20
Figure 10: European average CO2 emissions versus average engine displacement 2012 21
Figure 11: Cost of reducing CO2 emissions and reduction potential 22
Figure 12: Continental’s aluminium turbine housing turbocharger 23
Figure 13: Projected global turbocharger fitment for new vehicles by region 2014–2019 24
Figure 14: Regional turbocharger penetration forecast 25
Figure 15: Changes in boosted engine displacement 2014–2020 26
Figure 16: Forced induction vehicle market size 2014–2020 28
Figure 17: Forced induction market value 2014–2020 28
Figure 18: Forced induction equipment by vehicle 2015 29
Figure 19: Close tolerance rotors from a twin-screw supercharger 31
Figure 20: Schematic showing the operation of a Roots type supercharger 32
Figure 21: An Eaton TVS roots-type supercharger with integrated bypass 33
Figure 22: A schematic showing the operation of a conventional Roots design and an Eaton TVS supercharger 33
Figure 23: A typical compressor map for the operation of a turbocharger for passenger car applications 34
Figure 24: Summary of transient performance for Honeywell Dualboost concept turbocharger design 35
Figure 25: Fiat two-cylinder MultiAir engine 37
Figure 26: Volvo D12D 500TC 38
Figure 27: Mechanical turbo-compounding 39
Figure 28: Electric turbocompounding solutions 40
Figure 29: A schematic showing turbocompounding using a turbogenerator 41
Figure 30: Fuel consumption based on combined engine shaft and electrical power outputs 41
Figure 31: A turbogenerator based on TIGERS technology 42
Figure 32: A schematic of a twin scroll turbocharger 43
Figure 33: Multi-scroll turbine housing design 44
Figure 34: Deflection through a dual-volute-turbine housing with VTG guide vanes 44
Figure 35: Twin volute VTG with optimised exhaust manifold design 45
Figure 36: Holset VGT™ Turbocharging Technology 47
Figure 37: BMW bi-turbo 49
Figure 38: Exploded view of a Rotrak variable-speed supercharger 50
Figure 39: Antonov dual-speed supercharger 51
Figure 40: Valeo’s electric supercharger 52
Figure 41: Aeristech’s eSupercharger 53
Figure 42: A speed versus efficiency plot for Aeristech’s eSupercharger 54
Figure 43: GM’s LF3 twin turbocharged V6 engine with integral manifold mounted intercooler 55
Figure 44: Performance indicators for waste heat recovery technologies for an automotive application 58
Figure 45: Weight to power ratio for different waste heat recovery technologies used with a mobile application 58
Figure 46: Turbocharging technologies for high-pressure charging 59
Figure 47: A titanium alloy impeller 61
Figure 48: Global passenger car and light vehicles emission legislation normalized to NEDC progress 2000–2025 63
Figure 49: Real world CO2 improvements versus official fleet average results 64
Figure 50: A range of technologies identified in a European Commission study 65
Figure 51: Changes in transmission ratio strategy with downsizing 66
Figure 52: US Transportation Sector emissions scenarios 67
Figure 53: US targets for future GHG reductions (% reduction from 2005 levels) 67
Figure 54: US vehicle trends 1975–2009, fuel economy, power, weight 68
Figure 55: Average fuel efficiency 2010 and 2015 targets for gasoline vehicles 69
Figure 56: Comparison of different test regimes for EU, US and Japan 72
Figure 57: WLTC introduction timetable 73
Figure 58: Emissions standards timetable in selected countries, 2005–2020 78
Figure 59: NOx and PM limits in the EU and US, 1994–2015 (g/km) 78
Table of tables
Table 1: Comparison between downsized turbocharged diesel and non-turbocharged gasoline (Volvo) and turbocharged gasoline and non-turbocharged gasoline (Opel) performance 12
Table 2: Performance evolution through downsizing and turbocharging for the Volkswagen Golf 14
Table 3: Forced induction vehicle market size 2014–2020 27
Table 4: European criterion emissions limits 65
Table 5: Current passenger vehicle emissions regulations in Japan 70
Table 6: Comparison of different fuel efficiency regulations and test regimes 72
Table 7: US emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, to five years/50,000 miles (g/mile) 75
Table 8: Japan emissions limits for light gasoline & LPG vehicles (g/km) 75
Table 9: Japan emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km) 76
Table 10: Euro 5 emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km) 76
Table 11: Euro 5 emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km) 77

Author: Alistair Hill
Publisher: Autelligence
Published: December 2015
Pages: 103
Format: PDF

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What the industry is saying

“We estimate that by 2020, roughly half of all cars on the road will have turbocharged engines, up from one-third of all passenger vehicles today” – David M. Cote – Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, Honeywell International, Inc., January 2016

“In the gasoline engine sector in particular, global demand for turbochargers is set to rise sharply.”Udo Schwerdel, head of turbochargers, Continental, June 2016

“Downsized turbocharged engines offer the power that the customer wants along with the efficiencies of fuel economy and the benefits that go along with the lightweighting” – Frank Paluch, president of Honda R&D Americas

Some of our customers:
BMW
BASF
Bendix
Continetal
DAF
Daimler
Eaton
Federal
Flex
Fraunhofer
Google